Ubuntu is composed of many software packages, the vast majority of which are distributed under a free software license. The only exceptions are some proprietary hardware drivers.The main license used is the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL), explicitly declares that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software. On the other hand, there is also proprietary software available that can run on Ubuntu. Ubuntu focuses on usability, security and stability. The Ubiquity installer allows Ubuntu to be installed to the hard disk from within the Live CD environment, without the need for restarting the computer prior to installation. Ubuntu also emphasizes accessibility and internationalization to reach as many people as possible.

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Mozilla is the Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, currently known as SeaMonkey suite.

Thursday, April 30, 2009

Mozilla was the official, public, original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, currently known as SeaMonkey suite.

The name has been used in a number of ways and in combination with other phrases, though all of them have been related to the now-defunct Netscape Communications Corporation and its related application software.

Only three things have ever formally used the term "Mozilla" alone:

* the codename for the Netscape Navigator software project
* the official name of what was re-named Mozilla Application Suite
* the Mascot of Netscape.

The various other related uses of the term "Mozilla" are listed below in the order when they were first used.

no one deals  like we do!

Historically, Mozilla had been used internally as a codename for the Netscape Navigator web browser from its beginning. Jamie Zawinski came up with the name during a meeting while working at the company.[1] The name was created as a contraction of the words "Mosaic killer", hinting that Netscape would be the end to the (then only) competitor browser, Mosaic. The logo was a reference to the name of the classic fictional monster Godzilla.

Featured Projects

The Mozilla community produces a lot of great software. This page contains links to some of the most popular projects and also provides links to places where you can find even more.

Mozilla Applications

These applications are developed by the Mozilla community and their code is hosted on mozilla.org.

  • Bugzilla

    Bugzilla™ is a bug tracking system designed to help teams manage software development. Hundreds of organizations across the globe are using this powerful tool to get organized and communicate effectively.
  • Camino

    Camino® is a Web browser optimized for Mac OS X with a Cocoa user interface, and powerful Gecko layout engine. It's the simple, secure, and fast browser for Mac OS X.
  • Fennec

    Fennec is the code name of the effort to build a browser for mobile phones and smaller non-PC devices that provides the full web experience you get with Firefox on your desktop today.
  • Firefox

    The award-winning Web browser is now faster, more secure, and fully customizable to your online life. With Firefox® 3, we've added powerful new features that make your online experience even better.
  • Lightning and Sunbird

    Lightning is a popular calendaring, scheduling and task management extension. Sunbird® is a cross-platform application that brings Mozilla-style ease-of-use to your calendar.
  • SeaMonkey

    SeaMonkey® is the all-in-one application formerly known as the "Mozilla Application Suite", containing a web browser, a mail and newsgroups client, an HTML editor, web development tools, and an IRC chat client.
  • Thunderbird

    Thunderbird™ is Mozilla's next generation e-mail client. Thunderbird makes emailing safer, faster and easier than ever before and can also scale to meet the most sophisticated organizational needs.

Mozilla-Based Applications

These applications are built by individuals and organizations using Mozilla technologies. If you would like to suggest other applications to feature here, please let us know.

  • Boxee

    Boxee plays media from your computer and other devices in your home network, as well as connect you to various Internet sources that allow you to stream or download movies, tv shows, music and photos.
  • Scenari

    Scenari is an open source application suite for creating professional standard multimedia documents using a publishing chain process to reduce costs and ensure quality control.
  • See more Mozilla-based applications...

Mozilla Labs Experiments

    Mozilla Labs is a place where people come together to create, experiment, and play with new Web innovations and technologies.

  • Bespin

    Bespin is an experiment that proposes an open, extensible web-based framework for code editing that aims to increase developer productivity, enable compelling user experiences, and promote open standards.
  • Ubiquity

    Ubiquity is an experiment into connecting the Web with language in an attempt to find new user interfaces that could make it possible for everyone to do common tasks more quickly and easily.
  • See more Mozilla Labs experiments...

Mozilla Technologies

The Mozilla community creates a variety of different technologies that are freely available for other people and organizations to use in their own products.

  • Gecko

    Gecko is the layout engine that reads web content, such as HTML, CSS, XUL, and JavaScript and renders it on a user's screen. In XUL-based applications Gecko is used to render the application's user interface as well.
  • XULRunner

    XULRunner provides an environment for developers to build XUL-based applications such as Firefox and Thunderbird. It provides mechanisms for installing, upgrading, and uninstalling applications.
  • See more Mozilla technologies...

Mozilla Specifications

The Mozilla community has created and spearheaded the development of various specifications for languages that are used in Mozilla projects and can be used by others as well.

  • XUL

    The XML User Interface Language (XUL) is used to build feature-rich cross platform applications and add-ons that extend the functionality of existing Mozilla-based programs. Web developers will learn XUL quickly and can start building applications right away.
  • See more Mozilla specifications...


  • Add-ons Site

    Find the latest and greatest extensions, themes and plugins for Firefox, Thunderbird, SeaMonkey and Sunbird.
source: Mozilla

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Bogofilter is a mail filter that classifies mail as spam

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Bogofilter is a mail filter that classifies mail as spam or ham (non-spam) by a statistical analysis of the message's header and content (body).

The program is able to learn from the user's classifications and corrections.

Bogofilter is or can be integrated with graphical mailers, such as KDE's KMail, GNOME's Evolution or Claws Mail (formerly known as Sylpheed-Claws), or it is run by a mail delivery agent (maildrop, procmail) script to classify an incoming message as spam or ham (using wordlists stored by BerkeleyDB).

Bogofilter provides processing for plain text and HTML. It supports multi-part MIME messages with decoding of base64, quoted-printable, and uuencoded text and ignores attachments, such as images.

no one deals like we do!

The statistical technique is known as the Bayesian technique and its use for spam was described by Paul Graham in his article A Plan For Spam in August 2002. Gary Robinson, in his weblog Rants (September 2002), suggested some refinements for improved discrimination between spam and ham. Bogofilter's primary algorithm uses the f(w) parameter and the Fisher inverse chi-square technique that he describes. Paul Graham's new article Better Bayesian Filtering (January 2003) suggests some useful parsing improvements.

Bogofilter is written in C. Supported platforms: Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, OS X, HP-UX, AIX, RISC OS, SunOS, OS/2 …

Download bogofilter From Sourceforge Mirrors.
Some distributors ship bogofilter.
Project Page Please see our Sourceforge project page.
Security Announcements Check out the bogofilter security announcements.
Man Page Check out the bogofilter man page.
FAQ Check out the bogofilter FAQ (English).
Also available in French and Italian
History Check out bogofilter's release history.
Mailing Lists Check here for bogofilter's mailing lists.
Author Eric S. Raymond wrote the initial version of bogofilter. Since 2002 it has been brought to maturity by David Relson, Matthias Andree, Greg Louis, and a group of open source volunteers.

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An overview of the Minimo Project

Mozilla, the browser, is arguably one of the best desktop browsers. Mozilla is used in many desktop applications: Netscape 7, CompuServe, AOL for Mac, Ximian GNOME, Galeon, and Nautilus. There also have been a few ports to make Mozilla run on various devices such as the Nokia Media Terminal and the AOL/Gateway. With the release of Minimo, a slimmed down version of Mozilla, we offer a minimalist browser that may be the best browser in the embedded space.

Minimo has two aims. First and foremost, Minimo is for embedders. The application layer of Minimo is small, and offers only the required pieces that a browser should have. This application layer will most likely be removed and replaced with an embedders application logic and UI. In this sense, Minimo is just a configuration of the Mozilla browser that is targeted at the Linux device space.
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The second aim is to show off the Minimo. We have been releasing an application for the GPE Palmtop Environment on the Familiar distribution. Minimo does not require any GPE specific libraries or functionality. We chose GPE as a vehicle because it is well supported and quite easy to install on many of the IPAQ devices.

Requirements: Memory usage and toolkits

Minimo requires about 25 MBs of RSS (see sidebar) on ARM. Before you think that this is too high, you must remember that this is a modern web standards complaint browser. Alternative browsers do not offer you the same level of web standards support.

Figure 1 shows memory usage of Minimo against an automated page loader test. The page loader loads forty popular websites during a cycle and we run this test for five cycles. There are no shortcuts -- during each load, we download the page and render the complete content. (Some tests shortcut the drawing cycle to produces impressive page load times.) As you can see, we effectively level out at 25MB of RSS.

Figure 1: Minimo memory usage
(Click to enlarge)

Under the hood, the Mozilla functionality is isolated in a GTKWidget. This makes it quite easy for any developer familiar with GTK to use Minimo. Other toolkits are a possibility. Many commercial deployments are using QT. There has been work to make Mozilla work with QT, but currently there is no one exclusively working this.

Problems on small devices

One of the problems that all devices that display web pages have is a very small screen. There have been many proposed solutions to this problem. We believe that the two most promising are CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) manipulation and direct magnification.

Minimo provides what is known as Small Screen Rendering (SSR) that uses CSS to massage web pages into a format that looks better on small displays. On most web pages this works great. The page is reduced so that there is no horizontal scrollbar, allowing the content to be scrolled in one direction. Main content is usually moved to the top to allow you to see what is most important without having to scroll all over the page.

The second promising solution is the ability to scale a web page. Currently, most browsers (even on the desktop), only have a way to increase the font size of a page. So, when you “zoom” in a page, you are merely increasing the size of the text. An alternative to this is to do the actual scaling of all elements on a page. This will allow you to zoom out of a page and see the entire content, then with a click of the pointer, zoom in on the most interesting part of the page.


Our target for Minimo is a Linux device with around 64 MB of physical memory. As we mentioned above, Minimo runs at around 25MB of RSS. Above this, you will need a Linux distribution, GTK, and X Windows. We have been using Familiar and GPE with much success in this configuration.

We have run the same tests using Opera and Pocket IE on 32MB device form factors, and neither can make it though the page load test based on their lack of browser content and standards support, or they just simply run out of memory trying to display the pages.

64MB is really the form factor that is needed to create any useful browser for handheld devices; and in that space we look very good next to the competition. From discussions we have had with device makers it appears that most of the next generation cell phones and PDA devices will provide the kind of spec's you see in the current devices like the iPAQ with 64 MBs, so we are encouraged that the future is bright for Minimo being used in a variety of different handheld products.

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What’s next

We have just completed the first three milestones of the project where the focus has been:
  1. Iron out build configuration to strip Mozilla down to barebones requirements and focus on stamping out memory leaks and footprint use during browsing sessions

  2. Get the Minimo configuration ported and running on the iPAQ device and handhelds.org's familiar linux distribution

  3. Do a bunch of testing and evaluation to check out the feasibility of minimo to be used on current handhelds and devices we see being used in the future
After finishing up milestone three, things are looking very good. We have received some great feedback from individuals and companies that are following the project, with a lot of good ideas on the next round of things to work on. We are in the middle of evaluating those ideas and building a plan for the next stages of the project. We have some partners that sound very interested in funding continued development, porting, distribution, and integration of Minimo into products, so we are very encouraged about things on the horizon.

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Gecko is the open source browser engine used in multiple browsers, including Mozilla Firefox, SeaMonkey, Camino, and others

Monday, April 27, 2009

What is Gecko?

Gecko is the open source browser engine designed to support open Internet standards such as HTML 4, CSS 1/2, the W3C DOM, XML, JavaScript, and others.

Gecko is the name of the layout engine developed by the Mozilla Project. It was originally named NGLayout.

Gecko is used in multiple browsers, including Mozilla Firefox, SeaMonkey, Camino, and others. Gecko is continuously under development at mozilla.org. Gecko has been known previously by the code names "Raptor" and "NGLayout"; the new name was chosen following a trademark infringement dispute.

For more information see the Wikipedia article on Gecko.

What is a layout engine?

Basically, a layout engine takes content (such as HTML, XML, image files, applets, and so on) and formatting information (such as Cascading Style Sheets, presentational HTML tags, etc.) and displays the formatted content on the screen. It paints the browser's content area, which is the blank area inside the browser window's chrome.

Formally, a layout engine defines the placement policy for a document and places content on a page. Gecko's core is a very fast layout engine. Gecko also offers the ability to parse various document types (HTML, XML, SVG, etc), advanced rendering capabilities including compositing and transformations, and support for embedded JavaScript and plugins.

Gecko is so fast and so powerful that it's being used to create the user interface of some applications ("chrome") as well. In other words, Gecko will not only be displaying the document's content, but it will also be painting the scrollbars, toolbars, and menus on the screen as well. For more information see XUL.


How is a layout engine like Gecko different from a Web browser?

Gecko provides the foundation needed to display content on the screen, including a layout engine and a complementary set of browser components. However, Gecko does not package all of these components alongside other interface modules in a coherent, user-friendly application (including menus, toolbars, etc.), such as Firefox.

mozilla.org assembles the necessary components into its applications, such as Firefox, Thunderbird, SeaMonkey, Camino, which are available for free download from mozilla.org. Netscape released its own version of the browser branded as Netscape Navigator. Other companies release their own software and hardware products that use Gecko. See XULRunner Hall of Fame for a partial list of application that use Gecko via XULRunner.

Third parties such as ISVs and hardware vendors will pick and choose the components they want to use in their applications or hardware devices. Certain browser components are not provided as part of Gecko, such as bookmarks, history, address book, etc. However, the source for all those components is available for free download from mozilla.org.

Why was Gecko built?

The original Mozilla browser, first released as Navigator 1.0, was developed rapidly by a small team that was passionate about creating the next killer app, and they succeeded. Now that the web has evolved, a new generation layout engine was needed upon which future products could be built. Gecko enables a pioneering new class of dynamic content that is more interactive and offers greater presentation control to Web developers, using open and recommended Internet standards instead of proprietary APIs. You are encouraged to join this team by getting involved.

How is mozilla.org using Gecko?

mozilla.org will assemble the Gecko layout engine and other browser components into the Mozilla browser application.

How does Mozilla use Gecko?

Gecko lies at the heart of Mozilla and Firefox browsers, as well as others, powering all of the individual components. Gecko technologies will also power the display of the mozilla.com portal site, speedily delivering more exciting content and services. Gecko's architecture will serve Mozilla well into the future, enabling faster time to market, more innovation, less costly development, easier distribution and updating, and better cross platform support.

How can other companies and organizations use Gecko?

Because Gecko is small, lightweight, and open source, other companies and organizations can easily reuse it. Many hardware vendors are creating devices with network access and wish to include web browsing functionality. Likewise, many software developers want to include Web browsing capability in their applications, but don't want to independently develop browser software. These developers can pick and choose the browser components they want from among those that Gecko offers, and package these components alongside their own within their finished products.

Which open standards is the Gecko development project working to support, and to what extent does it support them?

By the end of calendar year 2000, Gecko is expected to support the following recommended open Internet standards fully except for the areas noted below and open bugs documented in Bugzilla:

  • HTML 4.0 - full support except for:
    • elements: BDO, BASEFONT
    • attributes: shape attribute on the A element, abbr, axis, headers, scope-row, scope-col, scope-rowgroup, scope-colgroup, charoff, datasrc, datafld, dataformat, datapagesize, summary, event, dir, align on table columns, label attribute of OPTION, alternate text of AREA elements, longdesc
    • various metadata attributes: cite, datetime, lang, hreflang
    • bidirectional text layout, which is only used in Hebrew and Arabic (IBM has begun work to add bidi support in a future release)
  • Style Sheets
    • CSS 1 - full support, except for:
      • the application of styles to HTML column elements
      • the ability to turn off author styles
      • the names of certain Mozilla extension pseudo-classes lack the moz- prefix
    • CSS 2 - partial support is expected and has already been built into Gecko, including support for CSS2 positioning, but no commitment has been made to achieve a specific level of support
  • DOM
    • Level 0
    • Level 1 Core: full support
      • making EntityReferences available through DOM1; per a provision of the DOM1 spec for XML implementations, Entities will be automatically expanded inline and therefore not available through DOM1; our implementation extrapolates this provision to apply to EntityReferences as well
      • For more information, see the DOM in Mozilla
    • Level 1 HTML
    • DOM 2 - Most of it has already been implemented in Gecko, including support for DOM 2 events, the DOM 2 Style, and the DOM2 Core. DOM 3 support is also planned for a future release.
  • XML 1.0: full support, except for processing to manipulate default attributes
  • RDF: full support, except for aboutEach, aboutEachPrefix, and parseType
  • JavaScript 1.5, including ECMA-262 Edition 3 (ECMAscript) compliance, except for Date.toDateString and Date.toTimeString, which are not implemented
  • Transfer protocols: HTTP 1.1 (including gzip compression), FTP
  • SSL
  • Unicode
  • OJI (Open Java Interface)
  • Image formats
    • PNG
    • GIF

Does "full support" mean that Gecko has zero bugs today or will have zero bugs at some point in the future?

Of course not. As Robert O'Callahan notes in bug 25707, "Full HTML4/CSS1 compliance can't mean '100% bug free'. If it does, no-one will ever ship a fully compliant browser."

Because web pages can be arbitrarily long and complex and have arbitrarily deeply nested markup, it will always be possible to construct web pages that do not display in a given browser the way the specifications would recommend. So long as QA testing and test case development continues, there will always be known bugs at any given point in time in the open-source Gecko codebase, and it follows that every commercial product that has ever shipped and ever will ship based on Gecko will have known bugs at the time of its release. (The same principle of course applies to other browser engine development projects and products based upon them as well.)

Known bugs in the open-source Gecko codebase are documented in Bugzilla. Here are some links to lists of reported bugs related to the standards mentioned above; be aware that these raw lists of open in-process bugs will inevitably include some duplicate, out of date, unreproducible, invalid, and incorrectly tagged reports:

The links themselves are probably outdated too.
  • Layout component tracks content layout bugs that may be related to a variety of specifications
  • HTML 4.0
    • Elements, Form Controls, Frames, Tables, and Form Submission
    • bug reports marked with the html4 keyword
    • "meta bug" for tracking outstanding issues with HTML 4.01 compliance
  • CSS: Style System component (see also bug reports marked with the css1, css2, and css3 keywords)
  • DOM: see DOM0, DOM1, DOM2 and Event Handling components
  • XML
  • RDF
  • core JavaScript language interpreter (JavaScript engine)
  • HTTP 1.1 compliance bugs should generally be found on the Networking, Networking - General, and Networking: Cache components
  • OJI
  • Imagelib image library (see also JPEG Image Handling and PNG Image Handling)
  • SSL-related bugs are filed on the Crypto component

For information about the known bugs of a specific commercial product based on Gecko, see that product's release notes.

How does Gecko format XML documents?

Gecko supports the use of CSS and XSLT to format XML documents.

For XML documents without associated CSS or XSLT, Gecko displays the pretty-printed source of the document.

How does Gecko help content developers?

Content developers are sick and tired of developing and testing every single web page multiple times in order to support the different, incompatible, proprietary DOMs of browsers from different vendors. They have been demanding that all vendors fully support the open standards listed above so that they can

  1. have a rich, powerful formatting system and object model at their disposal, and
  2. "write once, view anywhere."

Gecko's robust support for these standards makes Gecko the platform of choice for web content and web application developers worldwide.

Are Gecko's APIs based on ActiveX? COM? JavaBeans?

Gecko is reusable on all platforms thanks to XPCOM, a subset of COM that works across platforms. COM, developed by Digital and later adopted by Microsoft, is the de facto standard for modular interfaces on Windows platforms.

Additionally, on the Windows platform, Gecko's XPCOM interfaces are wrapped in an ActiveX control that VB developers can utilize (ActiveX wrappers are not available on other platforms because ActiveX is a Windows-only technology).

A JavaBean wrapper is not currently under development, but there is nothing in Gecko's architecture that precludes such development in the future. Source code and documentation for these interfaces are available through mozilla.org.

For future embedding API plans, see wikimo:Mozilla 2:Embedding APIs.

Are Gecko's APIs compatible with Microsoft's Trident APIs?

Gecko's XPCOM interfaces are different than Microsoft's. The most important differences between the two models involve reflection of the Document Object Model (DOM) in the interfaces.

Microsoft's Trident interfaces reflect the DOM in a proprietary API, whereas Gecko exposes the DOM according to the W3C's recommended standard. Other incompatibilities exist. Adam Lock created a partial compatibility layer that may enable developers to more easily migrate from Microsoft's engine to the Gecko engine.

Which platforms does Gecko run on?

Gecko runs today on Win32 (Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 4, Windows 2000, Windows XP), Mac, and Linux. OEMs and contributors from the Net participating in mozilla.org are porting Gecko to other platforms. Such porting efforts are underway for Solaris, HP/UX, AIX, Irix, OS/2, OpenVMS, BeOS, and Amiga, among others.

What are the components of Gecko?

Gecko includes the following components:

  • Document parser (handles HTML and XML)
  • Layout engine with content model
  • Style system (handles CSS, etc.)
  • JavaScript runtime (SpiderMonkey)
  • Image library
  • Networking library (Necko)
  • Platform-specific graphics rendering and widget sets for Win32, X, and Mac
  • User preferences library
  • Mozilla Plug-in API (NPAPI) to support the Navigator plug-in interface
  • Open Java Interface (OJI), with Sun Java 1.2 JVM
  • RDF back end
  • Font library
  • Security library (NSS)

Versions of Gecko

Gecko version Applications based on it
Gecko 1.9.2 (under development)
Gecko 1.9.1 (under development) Firefox 3.5, Thunderbird 3.0, SeaMonkey 2.0
Gecko 1.9 Firefox 3
Gecko 1.8.1 Firefox 2, Thunderbird 2, SeaMonkey 1.1
Gecko 1.8 Firefox 1.5, Thunderbird 1.5, SeaMonkey 1.0
Gecko 1.7 Firefox 1.0, Thunderbird 1.0, Nvu 1.0, Mozilla Suite 1.7
older versions of Gecko match the Mozilla Suite versions

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