Ubuntu is composed of many software packages, the vast majority of which are distributed under a free software license. The only exceptions are some proprietary hardware drivers.The main license used is the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL), explicitly declares that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software. On the other hand, there is also proprietary software available that can run on Ubuntu. Ubuntu focuses on usability, security and stability. The Ubiquity installer allows Ubuntu to be installed to the hard disk from within the Live CD environment, without the need for restarting the computer prior to installation. Ubuntu also emphasizes accessibility and internationalization to reach as many people as possible.

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Ubuntu Guide: Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot.

Saturday, March 17, 2012

Introduction


  • On October 14, 2011, Ubuntu 11.10 was released.
  • It is codenamed Oneiric Ocelot and is the successor to Natty Narwhal 11.04 (Natty+1).
  • Oneiric Ocelot is not an LTS (Long Term Support) release. It will be supported with security updates until April 2013.

General Notes


  • This is the original Ubuntuguide. You are free to copy this guide but not to sell it or any derivative of it. Copyright of the names Ubuntuguide and Ubuntu Guide reside solely with this site. This Ubuntu help guide is neither sold nor distributed in any other medium. Beware of copies that are for sale or are similarly named; they are neither endorsed nor sanctioned by this guide. Ubuntuguide is not associated with Canonical Ltd nor with any commercial enterprise.
  • Ubuntu allows a user to accomplish tasks from either a menu-driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) or from a text-based command-line interface (CLI). In Ubuntu, the command-line-interface terminal is called Terminal, which is started:

Menu -> File -> Open Terminal

Text inside the grey dotted box like this should be put into the command-line Terminal.

  • Many changes to the operating system can only be done by a User with Administrative privileges. 'sudo' elevates a User's privileges to the Administrator level temporarily (i.e. when installing programs or making changes to the system). Example:

sudo bash

  • 'gksudo' can be used instead of 'sudo' when opening a Graphical Application through the "Run Command" dialog box or as a menu item. Example:

gksudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

  • Many file management tasks can be accomplished with root Administrative privileges by starting the Nautilus file manager in a similar fashion. (Use 'gksudo' if starting Nautilus from a menu item.)

gksudo nautilus

or

sudo nautilus

  • "man" command can be used to find help manual for a command. For example, "man sudo" will display the manual page for the "sudo" command:

man sudo

  • While "apt-get" and "aptitude" are fast ways of installing programs/packages, you can also use the Synaptic Package Manager, a GUI method for installing programs/packages. Most (but not all) programs/packages available with apt-get install will also be available from the Synaptic Package Manager. In this guide, when you see

sudo apt-get install package

you can search for package in Synaptic and install it that way.

  • Many instructions use the text editor "nano" (which is universally available in Linux). However, it is often easier to use the text editor "gedit" in Ubuntu instead.
  • "Menu" refers to the menu bar at the top (or bottom) of the desktop, akin to the Start menu in Microsoft Windows or the Menu bar of the Apple Macintosh.
  • If you are using the 64-bit version, replace any "i386" with "amd64"

Other versions.



How to find out which version of Ubuntu you're using


Open the command terminal and type:

lsb_release -a

How to find out which kernel you are using


uname -a
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