Ubuntu is composed of many software packages, the vast majority of which are distributed under a free software license. The only exceptions are some proprietary hardware drivers.The main license used is the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL), explicitly declares that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software. On the other hand, there is also proprietary software available that can run on Ubuntu. Ubuntu focuses on usability, security and stability. The Ubiquity installer allows Ubuntu to be installed to the hard disk from within the Live CD environment, without the need for restarting the computer prior to installation. Ubuntu also emphasizes accessibility and internationalization to reach as many people as possible.

## Thursday, April 3, 2014

The emulator can be found at genymotion.com.

I should preface this post by stating that I have only used the Genymotion emulator for around twenty minutes, but it has already impressed me to the point where I would consider using as my main app testing device (I currently use a hardware device).

I have a few problems with the official Android emulator:

• Hard to enable x86 emulation on Linux
• Difficult to spoof GPS coordinates
• Not very user friendly

In the short period of testing Genymotion, all of these points were resolved.

Installation was literally less than five minutes, the emulator ran buttery smooth, and there were lots of configuration options for testing and running apps. It even comes with images that include the official Google apps so you can essentially use the emulator like a regular hardware device.

## Monday, March 24, 2014

Compass and Ruler (C.a.R.) is a dynamic geometry software developed by Rene Grothmann since 1989. You can find here an history of C.a.R. in the author's wiki. You'll find a lot of informations about this software on the official site of C.a.R.

Rene Grothmann, mathematic's teacher at the catholic university of Eichstätt (Germany), made for his software powerful and reliable algorithms to manage geometrical objects and relations between them : this makes it possible to make very complex geometrical constructions.

For the graphical interface, Rene also did a very great work concerning the interaction between geometric objects and user, what also makes it possible to use C.a.R. with young pupils in primary schools.

## Monday, March 17, 2014

This page describes rEFInd, my fork of the rEFIt boot manager for computers based on the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) and Unified EFI (UEFI). Like rEFIt, rEFInd is a boot manager, meaning that it presents a menu of options to the user when the computer first starts up, as shown below.   rEFInd is not a boot loader, which is a program that loads an OS kernel and hands off control to it.

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Bugsx draws the biomorphs based on parametric plots of Fourier sine and cosine series and let's you play with them using the genetic algorithm. A paper describing the theoretic backgrounds of bugsx in included in the source only package.   What is bugsx? bugsx runs under MIT's X11 window system. It was written under UNIX but should be easily portable.  It is a program which draws the

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This project is not part of the GNU Project.   Axiom is a general purpose Computer Algebra system. It is useful for doing mathematics by computer and for research and development of mathematical algorithms. It defines a strongly typed, mathematically correct type hierarchy. It has a programming language and a built-in compiler.   Axiom has been in development since 1973 and was sold as a

More »

Calc is an interactive calculator which provides for easy large numeric calculations, but which also can be easily programmed for difficult or long calculations.   It can accept a command line argument, in which case it executes that single command and exits. Otherwise, it enters interactive mode.   In this mode, it accepts commands one at a time, processes them, and displays the answers. In

More »

Whenever the latest piece of time-saving technology is released we ask ourselves, “how did I ever get on without this?” Okay, maybe we could have lived our lives without the vibrating fork that lets you know when you’re eating too fast, but you get the idea.   The iPad was a lifesaver for many of us young people whose laptops and phones weren’t enough. Just a short time after its debut release

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1.- Who Uses Torrents to get Free Music/Video? According to an info-graphic published by BitRebels a year ago, movies like Avatar, Batman – the Dark Knight , Transformers, Star Trek or Inception were just 5 out of 10 most downloaded movies of all time using torrents. The average user age who downloads free music or videos using torrents is somewhere around 22 years old and strongly believes in

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According to an info-graphic published by BitRebels a year ago, movies like Avatar, Batman – the Dark Knight , Transformers, Star Trek or Inception were just 5 out of 10 most downloaded movies of all time using torrents. The average user age who downloads free music or videos using torrents is somewhere around 22 years old and strongly believes in online freedom. 70% of online users find

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1.- Ubuntu Will Add Torrent Search to Embed Free Culture Into Us... A new scope set to be included in Ubuntu by default will allow users of The Pirate Bay to conduct BitTorrent searches directly from Unity desktop. The tool’s creator informs TorrentFreak that while there is still work to be done, the aim of the scope – which is endorsed by Canonical founder Mark Shuttleworth – is to embed Free

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A new scope set to be included in Ubuntu by default will allow users of The Pirate Bay to conduct BitTorrent searches directly from Unity desktop. The tool’s creator informs TorrentFreak that while there is still work to be done, the aim of the scope – which is endorsed by Canonical founder Mark Shuttleworth – is to embed Free Culture directly into the Ubuntu user experience.   In early

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Django is a high-level Python Web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design.   Developed by a fast-moving online-news operation, Django was designed to handle two challenges: the intensive deadlines of a newsroom and the stringent requirements of the experienced Web developers who wrote it. It lets you build high-performing, elegant Web applications quickly.

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## Thursday, March 13, 2014

This page describes rEFInd, my fork of the rEFIt boot manager for computers based on the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) and Unified EFI (UEFI). Like rEFIt, rEFInd is a boot manager, meaning that it presents a menu of options to the user when the computer first starts up, as shown below.

rEFInd is not a boot loader, which is a program that loads an OS kernel and hands off control to it. (Since version 3.3.0, the Linux kernel has included a built-in boot loader, though, so this distinction is rather artificial these days, at least for Linux.)

Many popular boot managers, such as the Grand Unified Bootloader (GRUB), are also boot loaders, which can blur the distinction in many users' minds. All EFI-capable OSes include boot loaders, so this limitation isn't a problem.

If you're using Linux, you should be aware that several EFI boot loaders are available, so choosing between them can be a challenge. In fact, the Linux kernel can function as an EFI boot loader for itself, which gives rEFInd characteristics similar to a boot loader for Linux. See my Web page on this topic for more information.

In theory, EFI implementations should provide boot managers. Unfortunately, in practice these boot managers are often so poor as to be useless. The worst I've personally encountered is on Gigabyte's Hybrid EFI, which provides you with no boot options whatsoever, beyond choosing the boot device (hard disk vs. optical disc, for instance). I've heard of others that are just as bad. For this reason, a good EFI boot manager—either standalone or as part of a boot loader—is a practical necessity for multi-booting on an EFI computer. That's where rEFInd comes into play.

I decided to fork the earlier rEFIt project because, although rEFIt is a useful program, it's got several important limitations, such as poor control over the boot loader detection process and an ability to display at most a handful of boot loader entries on its main screen. Christoph Pfisterer, rEFIt's author, stopped updating rEFIt with version 0.14, which was released in March of 2010. Since I forked rEFIt to rEFInd, Christoph has begun pointing rEFIt users to rEFInd as a successor project.

The rEFIt Web page has a distinct Mac bias, and the provided binaries work only on Macs because they're 32-/64-bit "fat" binaries, which Macs can handle but UEFI-based PCs can't. rEFIt can be recompiled to work on UEFI-based PCs, but prebuilt binaries for such systems are relatively rare. Although I do own a Mac Mini, my interest lies more on the side of standard PC hardware, and hence with UEFI. My development platform is Linux, and my installation instructions and binaries are much more platform-neutral.

I'm aware that many Mac users will consider this a step backward, but I ask their indulgence; I only have so many hours a week to work on this project, and I prefer to devote my efforts to improvements that will benefit all rEFInd users, at least initially.

As already noted, rEFInd is a boot manager for EFI and UEFI computers. (I use "EFI" to refer to either version unless the distinction is important.) You're likely to benefit from it on computers that boot multiple OSes, such as two or more of Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows. You will not find rEFInd useful on older BIOS-based computers. Prior to mid-2011, few computers outside of Intel-based Macs used EFI; but starting in 2011, computer manufacturers began adopting UEFI in droves, so most computers bought since then use EFI. Even so, many modern PCs support both EFI-style booting and BIOS-style booting, the latter via a BIOS compatibility mode that's known as the Compatibility Support Module (CSM). Thus, you may be using BIOS-style booting on an EFI-based computer. If you're unsure which boot method your computer uses, check the first of the subsections, What's Your Boot Mode.

Subsequent sections of this document are on separate pages. Be aware that you probably don't need to read them all; just skip to the sections that interest you:

Note: I consider rEFInd to be beta-quality software! I'm discovering bugs (old and new) and fixing them every few days. That said, rEFInd is a usable program in its current form on many systems. If you have problems, feel free to drop me a line.

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## Friday, March 7, 2014

Bugsx draws the biomorphs based on parametric plots of Fourier sine and cosine series and let's you play with them using the genetic algorithm. A paper describing the theoretic backgrounds of bugsx in included in the source only package.

What is bugsx?

bugsx runs under MIT's X11 window system. It was written under UNIX but should be easily portable.  It is a program which draws the biomorphs based on parametric plots of Fourier sine and cosine         series and let's you play with them using the genetic algorithm.

The original version which ran under Suntools and XViews was     written by Joshua R. Smith sometime 1990. See the 'credits' section for more details.

For more information about the theoretic backgrounds of bugsx consult Joshua R. Smith's paper distributed with this program in gzip'ed postscript format as bugs.ps.gz. You have to uncompress this file with 'gunzip' before you can print it.

Gunzip should be available at an archive near you.

The paper can also be gotten from:
http://physics.www.media.mit.edu/~jrs/biomorphs.ps

Command line parameters

bugsx accepts the following parameters as command line options:

+rv reverse video (use to override xrdb entry)
+synchronous syncronous mode (use to override xrdb entry)
-? help
-background <arg> backgound color
-batch run program in batch mode
-bg <arg> same as -background
-bordercolor <arg> border color
-borderwidth <arg> border width
-cycle <arg> re-initialize population after n batch turns
-display display
-extend_print show extended reproduction info while running
-fg <arg> same as -forground
-font <arg> font
-foreground <arg> forground color (also file system bar color)
-geometry <arg> geometry
-help help
-iconic iconic
-interval <arg> interval used per turn
-name <arg> run bugsx under this name
-nobreed do not breed when running in batch mode
-number <arg> number of biomorphs to draw (must be a square #)
-printpop print the population when breeding
-rv reverse video
-seed <arg> use this seed for random number generator
-segments <arg> use this many segments to draw an organism
-showbreed show breeding subpopulation when in batch mode
-showgenes show a graphic representation of the genes
-synchronous synchronous mode
-v verbose
-xrm make no entry in resrouce database
help help

XResources.

bugsx recognizes the following XResources. Usually bugsx will search  for resources under the program name but you can override this with the -name flag. If you do not wish to use a specific application defaults file, you can execute xrdb -merge to merge your resource specifications into the XResource database.

bugsx first checks in the directory pointed at by the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR. If this doesn't yield any resource definitions it checks the APP_DEFAULTS_DIR. This is defined in your headers or in bugsx.h. If you want to change this you'll have to recompile bugsx.

background universal backgound color
batch run program in batch mode
batchbreed do not breed when running in bactch mode
borderColor border color
borderWidth border width
cycle re-initialize population after n batch turns
display display
extend_print show extended reproduction info while running
font font
foreground universal foreground color
help show help
mainWin.geometry main window geometry
iconic start program in iconic mode
interval interval used per turn
minimize minimize window size
name run bugsxunder this name
number number of biomorphs to draw (must be a square #)
printpop print the population when breeding
reverseVideo reverse video
seed use this seed for random number generator
segments use this many segments to draw an organism
showbreed show breeding subpopulation when in batch mode
showgenes show a graphic representation of the genes
synchronous syncronous mode
verbose verbose mode

Install.

To install bugsx just follow these instructions.

Check the multiverse repository is enabled.

Inspect /etc/apt/sources.list using your favourite editor with sudo which will ensure that you have the correct permissions.

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

Ensure that multiverse is included.

After any changes you should run this command to update your system.

sudo apt-get update

You can now install the package like this.

sudo apt-get install bugsx

Which will install bugsx and any other packages on which it depends.

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## Saturday, March 1, 2014

This project is not part of the GNU Project.

Axiom is a general purpose Computer Algebra system. It is useful for doing mathematics by computer and for research and development of mathematical algorithms. It defines a strongly typed, mathematically correct type hierarchy. It has a programming language and a built-in compiler.

Axiom has been in development since 1973 and was sold as a commercial product. It has been released as free software.

Efforts are underway to extend this software to (a) develop a better user interface (b) make it useful as a teaching tool (c) develop an algebra server protocol (d) integrate additional mathematics (e) rebuild the algebra in a literate programming style (f) integrate logic programming (g) develop an Axiom Journal with refereed submissions.

Axiom is sponsored by CAISS, the Center for Algorithms and Interactive Scientific Software, at The City College of New York.

Philosophy.

The Axiom project focuses on the “30 Year Horizon”. The primary philosophy is that Axiom needs to develop several fundamental features in order to be useful to the next generation of computational mathematicians. Knuth's literate programming technique is used throughout the source code. Axiom plans to use proof technology to prove the correctness of the algorithms (such as Coq and ACL2).

Design.

In Axiom, all objects have a type. Examples of types are mathematical structures (such as rings, fields, polynomials) as well as data structures from computer science (e.g., lists, trees, hash tables).

A function can take a type as argument, and its return value can also be a type. For example, Fraction is a function, that takes an IntegralDomain as argument, and returns the field of fractions of its argument. As another example, the ring of 4\times 4 matrices with rational entries would be constructed as SquareMatrix(4, Fraction Integer). Of course, when working in this domain, 1 is interpreted as the identity matrix and A^-1 would give the inverse of the matrix A, if it exists.

Several operations can have the same name, and the types of both the arguments and the result are used to determine which operation is applied (cf. function overloading).

Axiom comes with an extension language called SPAD. All the mathematical knowledge of Axiom is written in this language. The interpreter accepts roughly the same language. SPAD was further developed under the name A# and later Aldor. The latter can still be used as an alternative extension language. It is, however, distributed under a different license.

Features.

Within the interpreter environment, Axiom uses type inference and a heuristic algorithm to make explicit type annotations mostly unnecessary.

It features 'HyperDoc', an interactive browser-like help system, and can display two and three dimensional graphics, also providing interactive features like rotation and lighting. It also has a specialised interaction mode for Emacs, as well as a plugin for the TeXmacs editor.

Pre-compiled binaries

Axiom has been compiled to run on various platforms.

This table contains links to various tar-gzipped version of files. In general you need to know the name of the file you download, usually something ending in .tgz (tar-gzip). You also need to know where the file gets untarred, this is referred to as (where) below. When you cd to the (where) location you should see the top level Makefile for Axiom, the changelog, etc.

Axiom builds on various platforms and uses the convention that the last name in the AXIOM shell variable denotes the type of system. This is referred to as the SYSNAME. You need to know which SYSNAME you downloaded.

To use one of these binaries just do:

cd axiom
export AXIOM=pwd/mnt/SYSNAME <= replace SYSNAME with actual name
export PATH=$AXIOM/bin:$PATH

ubuntu
src bin

ubuntu64
src

Source code

Axiom source code is maintained in a Gold and Silver version. The Gold version is the "released" version. Gold versions are released every two months.
The Silver version is the current "bleeding edge" that contains changes which will be tested and released into Gold every two months. Unless you need a recent feature or bug fix, or are working as a developer, there is no reason to use Silver

GOLD SOURCES

Tarball

The Gold (November 2008) release of Axiom is available.
The source code tarball from November, 2008 is here

tar -zxf axiom-july2008-src.tgz
cd axiom
export AXIOM=pwd/mnt/ (see table below)
export PATH=$AXIOM/bin:$PATH
make

GIT

You can clone the git repository from GitHub:

git clone git://github.com/daly/axiom.git
cd axiom
export AXIOM=pwd/mnt/ (see table below)
export PATH=$AXIOM/bin:$PATH
make

cd axiom
export AXIOM=pwd/mnt/ (see table below)
export PATH=$AXIOM/bin:$PATH
make

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## Friday, February 28, 2014

Calc is an interactive calculator which provides for easy large numeric calculations, but which also can be easily programmed for difficult or long calculations.

It can accept a command line argument, in which case it executes that single command and exits. Otherwise, it enters interactive mode.

In this mode, it accepts commands one at a time, processes them, and displays the answers. In the simplest case, commands are simply expressions which are evaluated. For example, the following line can be input:

3 * (4 + 1)

and the calculator will print:

15

All numbers are represented as fractions with arbitrarily large numerators and denominators which are always reduced to lowest terms. Real or exponential format numbers can be input and are converted to the equivalent fraction. Hex, binary, or octal numbers can be input by using numbers with leading '0x', '0b' or '0' characters. Complex numbers can be input using a trailing 'i', as in '2+3i'. Strings and characters are input by using single or double quotes.

Commands are statements in a C-like language, where each input line is treated as the body of a procedure. Thus the command line can contain variable declarations, expressions, labels, conditional tests, and loops. Assignments to any variable name will automatically define that name as a global variable.

The other important thing to know is that all non-assignment expressions which are evaluated are automatically printed. Thus, you can evaluate an expression's value by simply typing it in.

Many useful built-in mathematical functions are available. Use the:

help builtin

command to list them.

##### If are interested in algorithms for finding very large primes:
Some of the methods used by the Amdahl 6 to discover (what was at the time of discovery, the largest known non-Mersenne prime): (391581*2^216193-1) are contained in the calc script lucas.cal. This calc script is available as part of calc distribution.
##### If are interested the product of curious primes:
See the curious calc web page.
##### Calc is free

Calc is open software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation version 2.1 of the License.

Many people have expressed their thanks the many people who wrote calc, tested calc, contributed code to calc, patched calc, and helped to improve it since it started back in 1984.

We, the authors of calc wrote calc because they wanted to write it, because it was fun writing it, and because we wanted you to use and enjoy it.

If you use and enjoy calc, and you want to show your appreciation for calc, you might consider doing some of the following:

• Write and contribute some .cal resource files
• Write and contribute some calc shell scripts
• Work on one of the calc TODO items (type "help todo")

Calc mirror sites will find the following special files:

calc source mirror sites

• calc-*.i686.rpm: installs calc executable & shared libraries
• calc-devel-*.i686.rpm: installs headers, static executable & static libraries
• calc-*.src.rpm: calc src as an rpm
• calc-debuginfo-*.i686.rpm: non-stripped executable & libraries suitable for advanced debugging
• *_IS_LATEST_STABLE: indicates the most recent stable version
• *_IS_LATEST_UNSTABLE: indicates the most recent beta-test version
• HOWTO.INSTALL: How to install from the calc gziped tarball in 4 easy steps
• CHANGES: changes made as of most recently built version
• COPYING: calc GNU Lesser General Public License information
• COPYING-LGPL: GNU Lesser General Public License
• checksum.*: a checksum of the various calc tarballs
• what-is-calc: A brief explanation of calc

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