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Alpine is a modular embedded linux distribution for use in small appliances such as routers, VPN gateways, and more.

Pine was a freeware, text-based e-mail client developed at the University of Washington. Source code was available for only the Unix version under a license written by the University of Washington. Pine is no longer under development, and has been replaced by the new Alpine client, which is licensed as free software.

Supported platforms
There are both Unix and Windows versions of Pine. The Unix version is text user interface based—its message editor inspired the text editor Pico. The Windows (and formerly DOS) version is called PC-Pine. WebPine is available to individuals associated with the University of Washington (students, faculty, etc.)—a version of Pine implemented as a web application.

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Many people believe that Pine stood for "Pine Is Not Elm", in the manner of "GNU is Not Unix", ie. a recursive acronym. However, one of its original authors, Laurence Lundblade, insists this was never the case and that it started off simply as a word and not an acronym, and that his first choice of a backronym for pine would be "Pine Is Nearly Elm". Over time it was changed by the university to mean Program for Internet News and E-mail.

Licensing and clones

Up to version 3.9.1, the Pine license was similar to BSD, and it stated that

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee to the University of Washington is hereby granted …

The University did, however, register a trademark for the name Pine.

From version 3.9.2, the holder of the copyright, the University of Washington, changed the license so that even if the source code was still available, they did not allow modifications and changes to Pine to be distributed by anyone other than themselves. They also claimed that even the old license never allowed distribution of modified versions

The trademark for the Pine name was part of their position in this matter

As a reaction, some developers forked version 3.9.1 under the name MANA (for Mail And News Agent) to avoid the trademark issue and the GNU project adopted it as GNU Mana. Richard Stallman claims that the University of Washington threatened to sue the Free Software Foundation for distributing modified Pine, resulting in the development of MANA ceasing and no versions were released

The University of Washington later modified their license somewhat to allow unmodified distribution of Pine alongside collections of free software, but the license still does not conform to the Open Source and the Free Software Guidelines

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In 2006, the University of Washington announced that it stopped development of Pine with Pine 4.64, although Pine continues to be supported

In its place is a new family of email tools based upon Pine, called Alpine and licensed under the Apache License, version 2. November 29, 2006 saw the first public alpha releasewhich forms a new approach since the alpha test of Pine was always non-public.

Alpine 1.7.24 (semistable) released. on October10, 2008.

Alpine is a modular embedded linux distribution for use in small appliances such as routers, VPN gateways, and more.

The name "Alpine" stands for A Linux Powered Integrated Network Engine.

Alpine can boot from floppy/usb/cf/cd/whatever, packages are pulled into RAM, and everything runs from RAM, just like the distro's found in LEAF. This makes for very fast application load times, and provides added security if the boot media is write-protected or removed.

Current News
2008-10-10 Alpine 1.7.24 (semistable) released.
2008-09-26 Alpine 1.7.23 (development) released.
2008-09-12 Alpine 1.7.22 (semistable) released.
2008-09-02 Alpine 1.7.21 (development) released.
2008-08-16 Alpine 1.7.20 (development) released.
2008-07-02 Alpine 1.7.19 (development) released.
2008-05-23 Alpine 1.7.18 (development) released.
2008-05-06 Alpine 1.7.17 (semistable) released.
2008-04-04 Alpine 1.7.16 (semistable) released.
2008-03-21 Alpine 1.7.15 (semistable) released.
2008-03-11 Alpine (bugfix) released.
2008-03-05 Alpine 1.7.14 (development/semistable) released.
2008-02-20 Anonymous edits turned off due to a particularly bad Spam infestation. Anonymous edits will be re-instated as soon as possible.
2008-02-19 Alpine 1.7.13 (development) released.
2008-02-09 Alpinelinux website upgraded to Alpine 1.7.12
2008-01-23 Alpine 1.7.12 (development/semistable) released.
2008-01-05 Alpine 1.7.11 (development) released.
2007-12-05 Alpine 1.7.10 (development/semistable) released.
2007-11-23 Alpine 1.7.9 (development) released.
2007-11-13 Alpine 1.7.8 (development/semistable) released.
2007-10-22 Alpine 1.7.7 (development) released.
2007-09-21 Alpine 1.7.6 (development/semistable) released.
2007-09-17 New wiki site is up and running.
2007-09-08 Alpine 1.7.5 (development) released.
2007-08-04 Alpine 1.7.4 (development) released.
2007-07-26 Alpine 1.7.3 (development) released.
2007-07-02 Alpine 1.7.2 (development) released.
2007-06-14 Alpine 1.7.1 (development) released.
2007-05-18 Alpine 1.7.0 (development) released.
2007-05-04 Alpine 1.6.1 (stable) released.
2007-04-30 Alpine 1.6 (stable) released.
2007-04-12 Experimental bug tracking system (GNATS) is set up.
2007-04-12 Development version 1.5.12 released.
2007-03-02 Development version 1.5.10 released.
2007-02-10 Development version 1.5.8 released.
2007-02-03 Development version 1.5.7 released.
2007-01-27 Development version 1.5.6 released.
2007-01-20 Development version 1.5.5 released.
2007-01-02 Development version 1.5.4 released.
2006-10-25 Alpine Linux 1.4.4. Security fix for openssl and python.
2006-10-15 Development version 1.5.1 released. Alpine Configuration Framework included fo making webconf's.
2006-10-01 Alpine Linux 1.4.3. Security fix for openssh (DoS) and minor bugfix in alpine-baselayout.

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Design Philosophy & Goals

* Security comes very high. Everything is compiled with stack smashing protection. It costs approximately 3-5% in speed and size, but we believe it's worth it. We also strive to make package configurations secure by default.

* Size is also very important. It's why Alpine is an embedded distribution and not a general purpose one. We use uClibc and BusyBox as our main library and shell components. We are however willing to sacrifice some size for speedier development (see below). A typical installation medium would be a small compact flash card, not a floppy.

* Innovate, don't Recreate. Our goal is to to keep Alpine as easy to maintain as possible. This means we try to use the work of others as much as possible (obviously only if it's open source). By doing this we free up our development time to implement new features and improve the overall product. For example, we've written stripped down shell libraries and re-use the stock Gentoo init.d scripts.

* Automation is key. We try to provide automated processes (using scripts) for everything in the build process. Alpine is an extension of the Gentoo build framework. We use scripts that simply convert the Gentoo binary packages. Many things there are similar to Gentoo.

* User Friendly. Our goal is to make installation and use of Alpine extremely user friendly without compromising with security. Eventually we'd like all packages to be configurable via a sophisticated web interface (webconfs). This is not yet implemented. We'd also like to implement the ability to upgrade packages while maintaining a workable configuration all with minimal impact to the service being upgraded.

* Scalable. It should be possible to install Alpine in 3, 300, or 3,000 locations with a similar amount of effort. We plan to write an automated installer, centralized repository manager, centralized configuration manager, and monitoring tools.

* Don't try to be smart. Be simple and stupid - its smarter.

Stable Releases

Even numbered releases (eg, 1.6.x) are believed to be stable and ready for use in production environments. Minor number increments in stable releases (for example, from 1.6.2 to 1.6.3) will be bug fixes and security updates only.

Alpine 1.6
Master mirror (FTP) ISO USB
Master mirror (HTTP) ISO USB
Development Releases

Odd numbered releases (eg, 1.7.x) are development releases. They should be used for testing, learning, and development only. Minor number increments in development versions (eg, 1.7.0 to 1.7.1) may break things, be warned.

Alpine 1.7
Master mirror (FTP) ISO USB
Master mirror (HTTP) ISO USB
Old Releases

Old releases can be found on the main ftp or http mirror.


The sources of alpine are stored in subversion. To check out the tree use one of the following commands:

For annonymous access you can use:

svn co svn://svn.alpinelinux.org/alpine-builder/trunk

Which will checkout the alpine-builder directory in the current directory.


To be able to actually build packages you need apk-tools, either located [here] or a debian-package (ubuntu-package, but it is all just shell-script) [here].Chris Brown – With You
Release Notes for Alpine 1.7.26

From Alpine Linux

As usual, download iso images and tarballs for USB from distrib-coffe.

Changes in e2fsprogs libraries

This release includes some changes in the e2fsprogs libraries. Please remove 'ss' manually before upgrading, or things might break. You might need the -f flag for forcing removal.

apk_delete -f ss
Removed packages:

New packages:

Upgraded/downgraded packages (from version):
acf-alpine-baselayout-0.4.5 (0.4.4)
acf-alpine-conf-0.3.9 (0.3.8)
acf-apk-tools-0.1.4 (0.1.3)
acf-chrony-0.1.6 (0.1.5)
acf-core-0.4.11 (0.4.10)
acf-dansguardian-0.2.5 (0.2.4)
acf-devtools-0.3.2 (0.3.1)
acf-dhcp-0.3.8 (0.3.7)
acf-dnscache-0.1.8 (0.1.7)
acf-fetchmail-0.2.3 (0.2.2)
acf-ipsec-tools-0.3.11 (0.3.10)
acf-opennhrp-0.3.10 (0.3.9)
acf-openntpd-0.3.10 (0.3.9)
acf-openssh-0.1.0 (0.0.3)
acf-openssl-0.1.6 (0.1.5)
acf-openvpn-0.2.6 (0.2.5)
acf-quagga-0.3.3 (0.3.2)
acf-samba-0.0.2 (0.0.1)
acf-shorewall-0.4.2 (0.4.1)
acf-skins-0.1.5 (0.1.4)
acf-snort-0.3.9 (0.3.8)
acf-squid-0.3.6 (0.3.5)
acf-tinydns-0.2.11 (0.2.10)
alpine-baselayout-1.12.1 (1.12)
alpine-conf-1.7.1 (1.7)
apk-tools-0.15 (0.14)
busybox-1.12.1-r3 (1.12.1-r2)
com_err-1.41.2 (1.40.9)
conntrack-tools-0.9.8 (0.9.7-r2)
dovecot-1.1.6 (1.1.4-r1)
drupal-6.6 (6.5)
e2fsprogs-1.41.2 (1.40.9)
findutils-4.4.0 (4.3.13)
gawk-3.1.6 (3.1.5-r5)
jfsutils-1.1.12 (1.1.8)
libnetfilter_conntrack-0.0.97 (0.0.96)
libpcap-0.9.8-r2 (0.9.8-r1)
libuuid1-1.41.2 (1.40.9)
openssh-client-5.1_p1-r1 (4.7_p1-r6)
openssh-kerberos-5.1_p1-r1 (4.7_p1-r6)
openssh-server-5.1_p1-r1 (4.7_p1-r6)
rrdtool-1.2.28 (1.2.27)
sdparm-1.03 (1.02)
tor- (
varnish-2.0.1-r1 (1.1.2)
wireshark-1.0.4 (1.0.3)
ytree-1.92 (1.90)

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Retrieved from "http://wiki.alpinelinux.org/w/index.php?title=Release_Notes_for_Alpine_1.7.26"

This page has been accessed 3 times. This page was last modified 16:52, 5 November 2008.

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About Hugo Repetto

Ubuntu is a Linux distribution that offers an operating system predominantly focused on desktop computers but also provides support for servers. Based on Debian GNU / Linux, Ubuntu focuses on ease of use, freedom in usage restriction, regular releases (every 6 months) and ease of installation.
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